An Immediate Concern
The present case study examines drivers of change affecting a South Pacific Island community, Kiribati, including sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, and ocean acidification. Further, the case study examines the impact of climate change on water resources, food supply and health of Kiribati people. From these impacts, Kiribati’s risk and vulnerability can be used to establish adaptation plans for communities and build resiliency for the future.
Climate Change Impacts on Small Islands
According to the IPCC report on small islands, there would be negligible salinity impacts on small islands with sea level increases of just 1 meter, making the freshwater supply non-potable (Nurse et al., 2014). High “king” tides, essentially extreme high tides resulting from sea level rise, cause inner regions to become inundated with brackish water, leaving the islanders with a limited and eventually scarce water supply (Nurse et al., 2014).
It is expected that agricultural lands will be compromised due to climate change impacts, like higher temperatures, altered rainfall, and sea level rise (McIver, 2016). Food shortage will also result from ocean acidification, which causes a reduction in marine biodiversity and death of several fish species islanders rely on as a food source (IPCC, 2014).
Pacific island communities already have generally poor health, making them particularly vulnerable to amplification of already present health issues. To give some perspective, Pacific Islander average life expectancy is 10 or more years below someone living in a developed country (World Health Organization, 2015). Highest priority climate-related health risks in Pacific Island communities include compromised safety and security of water and food, vector borne diseases and population pressure (McIver, 2016).
The Republic of Kiribati
Many communities are near the coast, with more than half of its citizens living on Tarawa Atoll and many islanders still live in traditional raised huts (Weiss 2015). Kiribati is one of the lesser-developed islands in the Pacific, with weak infrastructure, problems of overcrowding (The World Factbook). As such, climate change can be seen a “threat accelerator” because it will exacerbate these current issues (Harvey, 2014).
Because Kiribati is an extremely low-lying island, the communities are particularly vulnerable to saltwater intrusion. Rising sea levels will displace residents, according to the Kiribati government, but prior to that residents will likely be relocated because of saltwater intrusion and its detrimental effects (Republic of Kiribati Office of the President).
Small islands, like Kiribati, are already facing the increasing risks and realities of climate change. Of interest are the various ways sea level rise will impact Kiribati, resulting in water and food insecurity, and increased health risks.
The Republic of Kiribati is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean, comprised of 33 atolls and reef islands (Weiss, 2015). The total land size of the islands is 810 square kilometers but the nation spans a vast 3.5 million square kilometers of the Pacific (Weiss, 2015). The average height of the nation’s 33 islands is no more than 2 meters, making Kiribati exceedingly vulnerable to climate change impacts related to sea level rise (Weiss, 2015).
Vulnerability to Climate Change Impacts in Kiribati
Water and Food Insecurity
Food safety and water safety are two major areas of concern for Kiribati, both of which are linked to inevitable sea level rise (World Health Organization, 2015). Freshwater supply on small islands, especially in developing nations, is already an inadequate resource and, as a result, Kiribati is predisposed to “water insecurity from climate change" (Nurse et al., 2014).
Both domestic agriculture and fishery operations are currently relied on for livelihoods and a food course, both of which will be impacted by climate change (World Health Organization, 2015). Kiribati is already facing a declining agricultural output and is likely to continue seeing climate related changes in the food supply (The World Factbook).
Kiribati residents rely on several fish species as a food source, and because of this dependency, the communities will be particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification, sea level rise, and warming ocean temperatures (IPCC, 2014).
Lack of food supply resulting from climate related crop failures and ocean acidification can be expected to damage human health indirectly, posing a major risk to human health and amplifying food insecurity (World Health Organization, 2015).
A direct link between these diseases and climate variability has been established, leaving vulnerable areas more susceptible (McIver, 2016). Extreme weather events cause disruption in local ecology, indirectly increasing the loads of mosquitos (McIver, 2016). Kiribati has already experienced increasing incidences of malaria and dengue fever and it is projected that these diseases will increase in the future under a changing climate (IPCC, 2014; Nurse et al., 2014).
Building Resiliency Through Adaptation Measures
Like other island nations, climate induced sea level rise is viewed as inevitable and migration will be needed under projected sea level rise over the next century (McIver et al, 2016; Harvey, 2014).
The Kiribati government has created the Kiribati Adaptation Plan (KAP) with an intention to reduce vulnerability to the above impacts. The Office of the President in Kiribati has implemented the plan through three phases (preparation, implementation, expansion), which work to increase awareness of climate change and protect resources. Under the plan, there are several initiatives to manage water supply and protect coastal areas, with an additional focus on increased planning for settlements (Republic of Kiribati Office of the President).
A helpful video summarizing the present study was made by BBC's Tim McDonald to give detail to Kiribati's dilemma.
Harvey, G. (2014, May 22). Sinking States: Climate Change and the Pacific. The Diplomat. Retrieved from http://thediplomat.com/2014/05/sinking-states-climate-change-and-the-pacific/#/disqus_thread
IPCC (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Summaries, Frequently Asked Questions, and Cross-Chapter Boxes (AR5). New York: Cambridge University Press.
McIver, L., Kim, R., Woodward, A., Hales, S., Spickett, J., Katscherian, D., & Naicker, J. (2016). Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(11), 1707-1714.
Nurse, L. A., Mclean, R. F., Agard, J., Briguglio, L. P., Duvat-Magnan, V., Pelesikoti, N., Tompkins, E., & Webb, A. (2014). Small islands in: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects (AR5). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Republic of Kiribati Office of the President: Climate Change. Retrieved February 20, 2017, from http://www.climate.gov.ki/category/action/adaptation/
The World Factbook. Retrieved February 22, 2017, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kr.html
Weiss, K. R. (2015, October 28). Kiribati’s Dilemma: Before We Drown We May Die Of Thirst. Retrieved February 22, 2017, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/kiribati-s-dilemma-before-we-drown-we-may-die-of-thirst/
World Health Organization. (2015). Human Health and Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press.
IPCC Small Islands Report
New York Times
University of Wollongong Australia